安乐哲参加第二届文明交流互鉴对话会
分享:
2022-01-12 发布
672 人浏览
  2022年1月10日,由中共中央对外联络部所属的中国国际交流协会主办的第二届文明交流互鉴对话会举行,中外各界约260人通过线上线下方式参会。世界著名中西比较哲学家、北京大学人文讲席教授、山东省儒学大家、国际儒学联合会副会长安乐哲参会并发言。

  第二届文明交流互鉴对话会共设三个议题,第一议题为“和平与发展:人类生存的基础、文明延续的保障”;第二议题为“公平与正义:人类的社会理想、文明的前进方向”;第三议题为“民主与自由:人民创造政治文明、人民评判政治制度”。安乐哲教授在第一议题中做题为“作为优化共生的儒家和谐”的发言


     再次受邀参加这个及时而重要的对话,我感到非常荣幸。本次对话的使命是促进共同构成丰富多样的人类文明的文化之间的相互理解。在我的简短发言中,我想重点关注的是试图阐明推动这一使命的基本价值观。今天让我们相聚一堂的对话主题是《秉持文明多样性理念,弘扬全人类共同价值》。

    It is my great honor to be invited once again to this timely and important dialogue. This dialogue takes as its mission the promotion of mutual understanding among those cultures that together make up the rich and diverse civilizations of humankind. What I would like to focus upon in my brief remarks is to try clarify the underlying value that animates this mission. The theme of the dialogue that brings us together today is “Upholding the Ideal of Civilizational Pluralism in Promoting the Shared Values of All Humankind.”

  当我们在不同的自然语言之间移动时,有时会丢失重要的含义。一个很好的例子是,当我们习惯性地将副主题和平与发展中的一词翻译成英文为“harmony”。但是现代英语中所理解的是否符合儒家对这个词的传统理解呢?《和》这个词源自希腊语harmonia,意思是联合、一致、和谐,来自动词harmozō组合在一起,结合

     Sometimes important meaning is lost when we move among our different natural languages.  A good example is when we conventionally translate the term he 和 in the subtheme, “peace and development,” into English as “harmony.” But does “harmony” as it is understood in modern English do justice to the traditional Confucian understanding of this term? The term harmony derives from the Greek harmonia, meaning “joint, agreement, concord,” from the verb harmozō, “to fit together, joined.”

  《Harmony有很强的比率含义:正确的数学校准,就像它们在音乐中表达的那样。如此理解的Harmony反映了一种世界观,就像数学一样假设有合理的必要性,一个单一秩序的世界。相比之下,儒家思想在其自身的过程宇宙学中实现了最佳和谐,这是一种开放式和涌现的审美成就, ratio oratio.寻求这种最佳和谐不是必然性的,而是要在任何情况下最大限度地利用创造性的可能性。

      Harmony has a strong sense of ratio: the proper mathematical calibrations as they are expressed in music. Harmony thus understood reflects a worldview that like mathematics assumes rational necessity, a single-ordered world. By contrast, the Confucian idea of an achieved “optimal harmony” within its own process cosmology is an open-ended and emergent aesthetic achievement, ratio and oratio. The striving for such optimal harmony is not a matter of necessity, but rather an attempt to make the most out of the creative possibilities in any situation.

  对我来说,这种儒家对最佳和谐的理解让我想起了我最早的两位老师,唐君毅和劳思光。唐老师坚持认为,理解儒家思维方法必须尊重《一多不可分》的假设。劳老师总是对我说:Roger,我们不想谈论中国哲学,我们想在世界哲学的背景下谈论中国哲学也是《一多不可分》。

     For me, this Confucian understanding of brings to mind two of my earliest teachers, Tang Junyi and Lao Siguang. Tang Laoshi insisted that in understanding the Confucian way of thinking we must respect the postulate of “the inseparability of one and many.” And Lao Laoshi would always say to me: Roger, we do not want to talk about “Chinese philosophy;” we want to talk about “Chinese philosophy within its context of world philosophy,” also “the inseparability of one and many.”

  这种优化共生以历史的过去作为其类比和投影的资源,并利用人类的决心和想象力来开辟一条永远新的前进道路:《人能弘道,非道弘仁》。在这种儒家的和谐意识中,我们人类的设计、目的和方向能力使人类在塑造不断发展的宇宙秩序方面发挥着重要作用。儒家对和谐的理解不仅仅是通过相互调和可以减少不和谐的差异。更重要的是,它指的是将这些差异协调到最佳、最高级效果的创造性和生产性结果。如此构想的和谐是寻求人类和宇宙对位的音乐性

     This “optimizing symbiosis” uses the historical past as its resource for analogy and projection, and draws upon human resolve and imagination to forge an always new way forward. Our human capacity for design, purpose, and direction assumed in this Confucian sense of harmony gives humankind a prominent role in the shaping of an always evolving cosmic order. This Confucian understanding of achieved “harmony” is not simply the mutual accommodation of difference that would attenuate dissonance. More importantly, it refers to the creative and productive consequences of coordinating such differences to optimum, superlative effect. Harmony so conceived is the search for a human and cosmic contrapuntal “musicality.”

  和,标准字符的词源是烹饪,结合了(禾)和的图形。在整个早期的语料库中,食物的准备被认为是这种优雅、综合和谐感的一种体现。和谐需要结合和混合两种或多种食物的艺术,以便它们相互增强而不会失去其独特的风味。

     The etymology of the standard character is culinary, combining the graphs for “grain” (he ) and “mouth” (kou ). Throughout the early corpus, the preparation of food is appealed to as a gloss on this sense of elegant,integrative harmony. Harmony entails the art of combining and blending two or more foodstuffs so that they mutually enhance one another without losing their distinctive flavors.

   ,较早、较复杂的甲骨文和青铜器上的《和》字,其结构是用芦苇管制成的龠笛,以为语音元素。这暗示着演奏音乐是理解这种高度审美的和谐感的一种隐喻方式。和作为一种优化的共生体,在文化中无处不在。

     The structure of  the earlier, more complex Chinese character for “optimizing harmony” (he ) found on the oracle bones and on the bronzes is composed of a  flute constructed out of reed pipes, with “grain” (he ) as the phonetic element. This alludes to the playing of music as one metaphorical way of understanding this highly aesthetic sense of harmony. He  as an optimizing symbiosis is a value found everywhere in the culture.

  家庭是儒家文化传统的统治隐喻:国家、大家,人家。孝作为家庭的崇敬是其首要的道德责任。如此强调家庭关系是因为这是一个人们愿意付出一切的社会机构。亲情或许是一种极简主义的道德,可以给人类作为一个物种带来团结。

     Family is the governing metaphor of the Confucian cultural tradition: country, everybody, humanity. Xiao  as family reverence is its prime moral imperative. Such an emphasis on family relations is because this is the one social institution to which persons will give everything they have. Family feeling is perhaps the minimalist morality that can bring solidarity to humankind as a species.

  論語 1.12 有子曰:「禮之用,和為貴。先王之道斯為美,小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以禮節之,亦不可行也。」 

     Master You said:“An optimizing harmony is the most valuable function of achieving propriety in our roles and relations.  In the ways of the Former Kings, this optimization of harmony by achieving such propriety made them refined, and was a guiding standard in all things large and small. But when things are not going well, to pursue harmony just for its own sake without regulating the situation through achieving propriety in family and community relations will not work.”

  欧美餐厅的菜单通常只有两页:开胃菜、主菜、汤和沙拉,背面有饮料。这家重庆中餐厅的菜单是一本厚书。通过在味道、颜色、季节、质地甚至声音方面结合食品,目标是最大限度地利用成分。在隔壁的粤菜馆里,他们有自己的非常不同的书。和作为一种优化的共生体,在文化中无处不在。

     The menu in a European restaurant is usually only two pages: appetizers, main dishes, soup and salad,with drinks on the back. The menu in this Chongqing Chinese restaurant is a thick book. By combining foodstuff in terms of taste, color, season, texture, and even sound, the goal is to get the most out of the ingredients. And next door in the Cantonese restaurant they have their own very different book. He  as an optimizing symbiosis is a value found everywhere in the culture.

  然后在翻译为“harmony” 的《和合》一词中,有第二个字符《合》。合这个字经常被翻译为将两个或多个事物连接或组合在一起。但在以关系为首要原则的儒家生态宇宙论中,关系而非事物是首要的。诸如《天人合一》人类与宇宙不可分离或《知行合一》知行不可分离等哲学主张,并不是将两个独立的事物放在一起。相反,是试图从《天人》《知行》关系本身中达到最大深度,获得最大收益。

     Then in the term hehe和合 also translated as “harmony” there is the second character he . The character he  is often translated as “to join” or “to combine” two or more things together.  But in a Confucian ecological cosmology that begins from the primacy of relationality, relations rather than things are first order.  Philosophical claims such as "the inseparability of humankind and the cosmos" or "the inseparability of knowing and doing," is not putting two separate things together. Rather, it is trying to find the greatest depth in, and get the most out of, the “human-cosmos” and “knowing-doing” relationship itself.

  当我们将这种对和合的理解作为一种优化的共生关系引入文明交流互鉴对话,使命就变得清晰起来。人类文明是一个活生生的社会、政治和文化生态。文明既是一个又是多个,因此是一种双赢或双输的发展模式。如果你的邻居做得更好,你就做得更好。我们能够达成的相互理解和包容,是共同繁荣的最终源泉。

    When we bring this understanding of "harmony" as an optimizing symbiosis to the exchanges and mutual learning among civilization, the mission becomes clear. Our civilizations are a living social, political, and cultural ecology.  Civilizations are one and many at the same time, and is thus a win-win or lose-lose model of development. If your neighbor does better, you do better. The mutual understanding and accommodation we can achieve is the ultimate source of a shared flourishing.

安乐哲 (Roger T.Ames)

      安乐哲(Roger T. Ames),1947年生于加拿大,北京大学人文讲席教授、世界著名中西比较哲学家、国际知名汉学大师、世界儒学文化研究联合会会长、国际儒学联合会副会长,山东省特聘“儒学大家”、博古睿研究院中国中心学术委员会主席、尼山世界儒学
+ 详细了解

互动交流

  • 下载专区

  • 企业邮箱

  • 官方微博

  • 一多不分微信

    公众号

  • 一多不分讲堂

    直播号